Aggressive Lymphoma (Diffuse Large B-Cell and Other Aggressive B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas)—Results from Retrospective/Observational Studies:
Outcomes With CD19 CAR T Therapy and Checkpoint Blockadein the Real World Setting
Loretta J. Nastoupil, et al.
The Abstract concludes: This multicenter retrospective study delineates the real world outcomes of axi-cel CAR T-cell therapy for r/r aggressive B-cell lymphoma when used as a standard of care. Though limited by relatively short follow up, 30 day responses in the real world setting are comparable to the best responses observed on the pivotal ZUMA-1 clinical trial (Table 1). Importantly, safety appears comparable to the ZUMA-1 trial despite nearly half the pts failing to meet ZUMA-1 eligibility criteria. Updated results including PFS and OS will be presented at the meeting.
Caron A. Jacobson, et al.
The Abstract concludes: Retrospective analysis of a multicenter cohort treated in the real world with axi-cel reveals important distinctions from ZUMA-1. The ORR and CR rate are lower than the 82% and 54% reported on ZUMA-1. This may reflect inclusion of sicker patients with a poorer PS, and/or with different histologies (ie transformation from non-FL). Outcomes were significantly worse in high risk lymphomas, reflected by IPI, PS, tumor bulk, and baseline CRP. Rates of CRS and NT were similar to ZUMA-1, but toxicity was not associated with tumor bulk or response. It was associated with higher peak inflammatory markers and ALC, which may reflect peak CAR T cell levels, as shown previously. Progression biopsies highlight 3 potential resistance mechanisms: loss of target antigen, an inhibitory tumor/TME, and lack of CAR T cell tumor infiltration. Immunomodulatory molecules on CAR T cells that may affect their activity and survival are upregulated early. This suggests that unique combination approaches are necessary for specific patients/tumors.
Nicole A Carreau, et al.
The Abstract concludes: These data suggest that in a R/R NHL population, treatment with CBT may sensitize some patients to subsequent therapy even if they progress or do not respond to CBT. Patient survival and best response to post-CBT treatment were independent of the treatment regimen, but many of these treatments bridged patients to SCT. In many patients the post-CBT treatment responses with or without SCT were of a significantly greater duration than their pre-CBT DOR (2 months vs 1 year). For this population, especially if they are ineligible for SCT or CAR-T cell therapy, this may be a novel treatment approach. We plan to expand this analysis with additional patients prior to the December meeting.
Victor A. Chow, et al.
The Abstract concludes: Patients with PD post anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy, particularly those exhibiting initial PD, have poor long-term outcomes. Patients receiving at least one anti-lymphoma therapy after PD had improved overall survival, although no single approach appeared to confer a survival benefit. Few enrolled onto a clinical trial or received an allogeneic HSCT. These data reinforce the need to both further improve the durable CR rate after CAR T-cell therapy and to develop effective strategies for those not achieving a CR.
Rawan Faramand, et al.
The Abstract concludes: In this analysis of 20 patients, we observed a correlation between severe CRS and elevated serum cytokine levels of IL-6 and angiopoietin 2/angiopoietin 1 ratio at day one suggesting that these biomarkers may be utilized to predict severe toxicity in patients treated with ACT. While this study is limited by small sample size, our observations correlate with previously published biomarkers data in patients enrolled in clinical trials. To our knowledge this is the first reported cytokine data using commercial axi-cel. Monitoring of cytokines using a POC device is feasible and will be useful clinically. High risk patients may be identified early and help guide intervention in real time, for example day one elevated IL-6 levels might inform earlier use of tocilizumab. We continue to enroll patients to validate cytokines as predictive biomarkers with the goal of informing the development of preventative strategies to mitigate CAR T cell therapy immune related adverse events.
Dahlia Sano, et al.
The Abstract concludes: Our results suggest that response rates are comparable between the elderly and younger age groups at day 30 after axi-cel therapy. Importantly, toxicities due to CRS and/or CRES after axi-cel CD19 CAR T cell therapy are comparable between the elderly (³65 years) and younger (<65 years) patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma.